Dutch Bucket Hydroponics 101: Start Small, Grow Big!

Are you curious about grow buckets? Great. But not quite sure how to start your first hydroponic bucket?

My name is Mattias, and in this first of two articles, I will tell you all you need to know about hydroponic grow buckets.

And then, in part two, I will show you how to build your own DIY grow bucket in less than 30 minutes for less than 30 dollars.

Just the facts: It is easy to fall into the rabbit hole of multi-bucket hydroponic setups. Instead, start with one hydro bucket and make it simple. There is always time to grow. And when you know how to run one bucket, it is straightforward to turn your one bucket setup into a traditional Dutch bucket growing system. 

Grow buckets are probably the most versatile hydroponic system. It works great for:

  • vertical hydroponics
  • scalable hydroponic Dutch bucket systems
  • small space indoor hydroponics

And here today, we will focus on indoor hydroponics for smaller spaces.


Regardless of your ambitions, you should learn to master one bucket first.

When you know how to run one bucket, the sky is literally the limit.

Start small and level up when you have the experience
Be smart – start small and grow big!

Staple the buckets for a vertical hydroponic garden or place the buckets in rows for a more traditional garden setup.

Or do what I do each fall: set up your bucket indoors for fresh greens and tomatoes all winter long.

Hydroponics is a soil-less gardening method where we grow plants in a nutrient-rich water solution. If you are new to hydroponics, check out our Guide to getting started with Hydroponics

But before we start, and even though our bucket will not be a traditional Dutch bucket, I think it is important that you understand where all the references to Dutch and Bato come from. 

What is the Dutch Bucket Bato Method (Bato)?

The traditional Dutch Bucket Bato Method is a hydroponic method using individual buckets filled with a soil-less medium.

Each bucket has its own nutrient-water supply and drainage. 

The buckets are served from a central nutrient solution tank using drip irrigation.

Use the containers or buckets you have
Containers with drip irrigation and drain pipes

There are two main setups: 

  1. Drain-to-waste – the nutrient solution is discarded after passing through the bucket.
  2. Recirculating – the drained nutrient solution returns to the nutrient tank for reuse.

Many systems use the Drain-to-waste method as it avoids the problem of re-balancing the nutrient solution. Adding the discharge from the drain into your reservoir will swing both pH and EC levels. And you already know how important pH is for nutrient uptake and healthy growth. 

On the other hand, the re-circulation crowd argues that discarding the discharge is wasteful and costly as it holds some nutritional value. 

Fun fact: The "Bato" part comes from the name of the dutch company, Bato Plastics, that manufactured one of the first widely used hydroponic containers. Still today the terms "dutch buckets" and Bato buckets" are used as a product name. 

The real appeal of the system is about control, prevention, and scalability.

You control what your plants eat, the system is less exposed to pests and diseases, and you can start with one bucket and expand as needed; there are no limits.

Another plus, you do not have to be an expert to run it. 

How do grow buckets work?

All grow buckets lean on the same fundamental principle: Plants do not care how you deliver the nutrients.

Grow buckets provide a controlled soilless environment for plants.

Buckets are filled with a stable, inert medium instead of soil — think perlite, Rockwool, or LECA clay pellets. The medium supports and anchors the plants’ root system and keeps the plants stable.

LECA pellets in my preferred growing medium
I prefer LECA pellets

Nutrients can be fed to the plant in a few different ways:

1. Traditional Dutch Bato Buckets

Drip irrigation delivers nutrient-infused water directly to the plants in each bucket.

The drip is set to run on a timer to ensure that each plant gets exactly what it needs.

Too much water? No problem. Any excess is drained to ensure that the roots do not get waterlogged or suffer from nutrient buildup.

My trusted hole making drill bit
My trusted 3-inch hole making drill bit

This system requires some moving parts, like pumps and timers, to regulate the flow of the solution.

This is a great setup, but if you are starting out, drip irrigation schedules may not be where you want to start.

And if you are growing indoors – do you really want a drip irrigation system inside your home?

2. Kratky type systems

The Kratky system is genius in all its simplicity. 

The system was invented by B. A Kratky, and there are several interesting reads on the Internet. I have linked below to my favorite “A Suspended Pot, Non-Circulating Hydroponic Method” [1].

As the title suggests, the system uses a bucket, a growing medium, and a nutrient solution.

But there is no need for electricity,  circulating water, or pumps.

It is a passive method where plants are suspended above the nutrient solution, and the roots grow down into this mixture. 

A small Kratky masonry jar setup
Katky setup in masonry jars

A gap is created as the plant consumes parts of the nutrient solution over time. 

  • The bottom part of the roots is submerged in the nutrient solution and is responsible for nutrient uptake.
  • The upper part of the roots is hanging free in the air and is responsible for aeration.

Again, it is a great system, but there are limitations. Plants with large root systems, like tomatoes and peppers, are not ideally suited for the Kratky method. You are also likely to experience a lower yield compared to aerated systems using a water or air pump.

My preferred one-grow-bucket setup

My preferred method combines the best of two worlds: the simplicity of the Kratky method and the key principles of the Dutch bucket setup.

The key components are:

  • one bucket made from a food-safe material
  • net pots
  • LECA pellets
  • an air pump with an air stone
  • a water-based nutrient solution

This one-bucket system removes the need for drip irrigation and drainage and does, in large part, resemble a Deep Water Culture System.

Two of my air stones
Two ball shaped airt stones

If you are skeptical, let me explain the advantages of starting with one bucket.

Why you should start with one grow bucket

The advantages can be summarized in three ways: it is manageable, cost-effective, and educational. Plus, it is great for indoor gardening.

One bucket will allow you to focus on your plant, not the system.

And even if you are here to learn more about the bucket system, hydroponics is ultimately all about growing plants.

Avoid getting bogged down with details about drip emitters, drain pipes, tubing, and irrigation lines. Focus your attention on the actual process. 

Also, with one bucket, you do not need a big budget to get started. You can do a lot with less. 

And most importantly, it is hands-on learning with real-time observation at its best.

Root systems grow large
Learn how to manage root health

You will learn to handle water levels, adjust nutrient levels, and to tackle any unexpected challenges that you face on a small and manageable scale.

So what if you make mistakes? No big deal.

It is one bucket, and each problem you face will teach you what you need to know when you level up to a larger system.

A single-bucket setup is the smart way to start.

Finally, I did mention that it is great for indoor gardening.

My simple setup does not need much space or use a drain pipe. And not having a drain takes away the worry of leaky seals causing water damage.

This is a big plus for me. 

What can I grow in buckets?

You can grow a range of vegetables and herbs in grow buckets.

Avoid plants with deep root systems and heavy feeders.

Some ideal plants include tomatoes, cucumbers, strawberries, and peppers.

Herbs, leafy vegetables, and even vining plants are also good choices.

Some of my favorite herbs include basil, parsley, chervil, and cilantro/ coriander.

I prefer 7.6 cm / 3-inch net pots
I prefer 7.6 cm / 3-inch net pots

Hydroponics is not that different from traditional soil-based gardening; you need to know your plants.

Plants have unique requirements for nutrients, space, and care. If you get those details right, you are heading to healthy plants and strong yields.

Still, each system has pros and cons. Next, let’s look at where we can get the most growth for our buck.

6 advantages with grow bucket hydroponics

Hydroponics uses water and nutrients more efficiently than traditional soil gardening.

Basically, you have more control, and there is less waste as each plant receives what it needs. And it is delivered directly to its roots.

But there are also advantages specific to single-bucket systems:

I use a submersible water pump for my outdoor Dutch Bato bucket setup
I use submersible water pumps for my Bato buckets
  1. Scalable: Once you master the process, it is easy to scale up and create your own Dutch or Bato bucket system.
  2. Space-saving: Not a lot of available space? No problem. Grow buckets fit into smaller spaces and allow for vertical systems by stacking buckets on top of each other. You can produce more in less space compared to traditional methods.
  3. Inexpensive: The systems are inexpensive to set up whether you buy or reuse containers.
  4. Flexible: Any container can be used. Do not get hung up on terminology; even a 2-4 liter container can be used to grow leafy greens and herbs. 
  5. Prevents unproductive competition: Growing one plant per bucket ensures it receives what it needs when needed. It avoids competition for resources from other plants with different growth cycles.
  6. Ease-of-use: Lightweight, easy to set up, adjust, and quick to disassemble or move. 

Given these advantages, it is easy to see why the method is growing in popularity. 

But no system is perfect, and you should be aware of a couple of drawbacks or limitations.

Limitations with bucket hydroponics

All systems come with their own set of challenges.

And even though I have never had any problems dealing with these limitations, it is important to be aware of them.

  1. Technical know-how meets water: Especially larger systems need more pipes, fittings, and seals to work. If your system leaks, your plants will suffer. And this is no fun. But if you are gardening indoors, you could face water damage. And that is even worse. 
  2. Sensitive to temperature swings: Plants like a stable growing environment. As buckets typically are placed above ground, they are more susceptible to swings in temperature. Indoor buckets can be covered in bubble wrap; outdoors, you can bury part of the bucket in soil to help regulate temperature. 
  3. Maintenance: Hydroponic systems require regular cleaning to prevent algae growth or pipe clogging. This upkeep is a necessary evil and should be a part of your plan as you expand your system.

Given all this information about opportunities, advantages, and limitations, is it not just easier to buy a grow bucket setup?

Should I build or buy my hydroponic bucket?

There is no right or wrong.

Both avenues have pros and cons. From my experience, it is more about how you want to start than cost or budget.

Buying a plug-and-play system is a fast and easy way to get started. Especially if you are not that into DIY projects. But this convenience will come at a cost.

Still, the biggest obstacle here is to know which system to buy. Will the system suit your needs and wants? 

Building your own hydroponic bucket is more cost-effective, and it is really not that complicated. Here, you can choose an ideal setup for you and your available space. 

Prepping a 3-pot indoor grow bucket
I prefer DIY (prepping a 3 pot grow bucket)

It does get a bit more technical when you expand your system and add drip irrigation and drainage. Still, you do not have to be an engineer to make it work.

I will shoot a video when I next set up my Dutch bucket system. But it has to wait as it is an outdoor spring, summer, and fall system.

What do I need to build a hydroponic bucket?

If you are eager to get going, here is a list of the equipment you need to build your single bucket as well as Dutch bucket system:

Single-grow bucket setup

This is my preferred setup for indoor bucket hydroponics.

I have put "optional" for some of the items on the list. I garden in zone 7 and I need all the optional items as winters are cold and dark where I live.
  • Seedlings: Start from seeds or buy at a local nursery
  • Bucket – A large bucket, at least 10 liters / 3 gallons
  • Growing medium: I prefer LECA, but you can use coconut coir or Rockwool cubes to list two alternatives.
  • Net pots: Buy or make your own from nursery pots. I prefer the 7,6 cm / 3-inch size.
  • Air pump (optional): Helps circulate and aerate the nutrient solution. A must for me. It does not cost much and often comes with stop valves, air stones, and tubes. Consider getting a pump with multiple outlets if you plan to expand your system.
  • Air stone (optional): Helps disperse the bubble in the nutrient tank.
  • A light source (optional): A full spectrum grow light. Again, there are inexpensive options.
  • Plant food (nutrients): Choose 2- or 3-part liquid nutrients. There are several organic options.
  • Water: I use tap water. But distilled water is a (more expensive) option, depending on where you live. 
  • pH / EC meter (optional): You do not need this from day 1. But trust me, you will want to buy one to measure the pH and the nutritional value.
  • pH adjusters (optional): Only needed if you have a pH meter. And there are natural alternatives like baking soda and lemon juice.

And trust me, building a hydroponic bucket is not as daunting as it may sound. Check out my video, and you will see how easy it actually is.

Expanding to a Dutch bucket system

Turning your one bucket into a system does not require much extra work. And you only need to add a couple of extra items.

  1. More buckets: Ideally, choose the same size and type of bucket.
  2. More growing medium: Perlite is my preferred option for drip-fed hydroponic systems.
  3. More net pots: One or more per bucket.
  4. Nutrient solution: A mix of essential nutrients that your plants will absorb, replacing traditional soil nutrients.
  5. Water pump and tubing: The drip irrigation system delivers a consistent supply of nutrient solution to your plants.
  6. Air stone and air pump: Helps aerate the nutrient solution to promote healthier roots.
  7. Timer: You do not want your drip irrigation to run 24/7. Running the drip for 30 minutes to an hour every 3-4 hours is usually a good starting point. 
  8. pH testing and adjusting kits: Regular testing and adjustment of pH levels in your nutrient solution are vital for optimal plant health.
Buy perlite in bulk for traditional Bato bucket setups
100 lite sack of Perlite. Buy Perlite in bulk to save money for traditional Bato bucket setups

With these itams you are ready to setup a high-yielding hydroponic bucket system tailored to your needs.

DIY calls for a hands-on approach and you will learn a lot along the way. 


  • Understanding the basics: Bucket hydroponics is a versatile, efficient form of gardening encompassing many different styles with and without drip irrigation and drain pipes.
  • Finding your ideal solution: Kratky and my single bucket system are both variations of the traditional Dutch bucket system.
  • Advantages: Bucket hydroponics is scalable, space-saving, inexpensive, flexible and easy to setup and manage.
  • Limitations: Systems are sensitive to temperature variations, and larger systems use more complex plumbing, increasing the risk of leaks and water damage.
  • Build vs. buy: Whether you choose DIY or purchase a ready-made system often depends more on interest than budget.
  • Building requirements: Constructing your own system requires a basic set of materials, including a bucket, growing medium, net pots, pumps, and a pH kit.

Helpful sources: 

[1] https://www.ctahr.hawaii.edu/hawaii/downloads/A_Suspended_Pot_Non-circulating_Hydroponic_method.pdf 

Mattias Magnusson: Hello, I'm Mattias, a passionate and experienced gardening enthusiast. I am the creator of MattMagnusson.com, your guide to year-round herb and veggie growing. Let's simplify green living, no matter your space or location.