Parsnip (Pastinaca sativa), also called “White gem”, is an easy-to-grow root vegetable perfect for gardeners of all levels.
This article will take you through the steps from planting seeds indoors to harvesting the parsnip roots outdoors later in the season.
I start some plants early in the year in pots. You can also plant the seeds outdoors directly, and parsnip is an ideal vegetable for winter sowing for an early spring harvest.
- Parsnip requires patience and space.
- 7 steps to grow parsnips from seed to harvest
- Harvest your parsnip seeds for new plants
- Harvesting parsnip seeds from parsnip scraps
Parsnip requires patience and space.
As I have already mentioned the parsnip is an easy to grow and low maintenance vegetable.
But it does require space and patience to yield the best results.
And yes, it does mean growing all the way through the summer season where other herbs and vegetables could have been harvested if grown in that same spot.
But if you have the space and the patience I welcome you to the circle of parsnip growers.
It is worth it.
7 steps to grow parsnips from seed to harvest
The parsnip plant wants to grow in full sun in well-draining deep, stone-free soil that has been well dug.
But first, let’s look at how we get to the stage where we transplant the parsnip seedling into the vegetable garden.
1. Choosing the pot
I use pots made from recycled plastic for my parsnip seeds.
I have had these plastic pots for a long time and will continue using them until they break.
The plastic pot also helps me control the moisture and heat, as there is no evaporation or storage of heat to speak of.
2. Choosing the soil
Planting the seeds, I use a 50/50 mixture of nutrition richer potting soil and a finer and leaner cactus soil.
I have both of these products, but you can of course use whatever potting soil you have at home.
Tip! Avoid using overly fertilized soils as they may burn the new roots when the seeds germinate.
3. Planting the seeds
To grow parsnip from seed, you make a hole and plant the seeds 1-2 cm (about 1/2 inch) deep in your pot. Make sure to place the pot in a warm and light place but avoid direct sunlight.
I always plant at least five seeds per hole, as parsnip seeds do not always germinate.
Fresh seeds will always work best, as old seeds have a low germination rate. This is also why I do not save store-bought seeds from one season to another. These old seeds are ideal for winter sowing.
When I have planted the seeds, I water from underneath by placing the mpots in a water bath.
But if you prefer, you can also thoroughly water the soil before planting the seeds. Alternatively, bottom water the pot after the seeds are planted.
4. Waiting for germination and signs of life
Remember that we talked about patience? We must wait for the first seed leaves or cotyledons to appear from our germinating seeds.
It can take 3-4 weeks for the seeds to germinate, and while we wait, we make sure to keep the soil moist.
This is also an excellent reason to oversow and add more than one seed per pot.
It takes several weeks to find out if a seed will fail to germinate. We maximize our chances of healthy germination by planting five seeds per hole.
5. Transplanting seedlings to our vegetable garden
The parsnip plant wants to grow in full sun in well drained and stone free soil that has been well dug.
I prefer to transplant early and only ensure the soil temperature is above an average of 5 degrees Celsius (41 degrees Fahrenheit).
I am ready to transplant as soon as the first true leaves appear.
You will know when the true leaf appears as it looks different than the seed leaves or cotyledons.
I do not separate the individual seedlings but empty and transplant the entire pot to the vegetable garden.
Plant the seedlings approximately 10-15 cm (4-6 inches) apart. If you transplant many seedlings, keep the rows about 30 cm (12 inches) apart.
6. Looking after the parsnip plant
The parsnip is a low-maintenance plant, but we should keep a few things in mind to maximize the harvest.
To help the plant grow, you can thin out the seedlings by gently removing the weaker seedlings as the plant develops. I usually don’t and will explain why in step 7.
Most of the growth of the root happens late in the season.
In other words, be patient and let the plant do its work. The parsnip roots will be ready for delicious hearty soups for the fall and winter season.
I do not add any store-bought fertilizer. Instead much like with growing horseradish I enrich the soil by adding grass clippings around the plants. The grass clippings add natural nutrients and help keep the soil around the plant moist during hot summer days.
I diligently keep the area with parsnips free from weeds and loosen the soil around the plant with a pitchfork a few times during the growing season.
Every now and then the leaves will be attacked by pests. My first line of defense is always to remove the leaves under attack and then to keep an eye on the plant. And most of the time it is enough.
7. Harvest the parsnip root
Parsnips can take more than 120 days from sowing seeds to reach full maturity.
We can harvest the parsnip roots from October through December, depending on the climate.
You can even, if you want, leave the roots outside over winter as long as the plants are covered to protect from the cold.
The general rule is, in other words not to be in a rush to harvest your parsnip crops. The longer you wait the tastier the root.
And this is where we get the reward from not having already thinned out the seedlings.
Instead we do it now and get small and fresh parsnip roots as we thin out the plants.
We have now extended the harvesting season, and given the plants we left behind more room to develop.
Harvest your parsnip seeds for new plants
It is effortless to buy parsnip seeds from your gardener or order quality seeds online.
But I also like to harvest my seeds. And I think you should also try it as it is effortless.
Parsnips are self-fertile, and the good news is that the plant will accept pollination by pollen from the same plant or another plant of the same variety.
But for best results and to ensure genetic variety, it is wise to aim for at leastfive5 plants that you allow to flower and set seeds.
When the parsnip flowers you will soon after see the seeds forming in the crown.
When the seeds turn light brown, they are ready to be harvested.
Simply shake the branch over a large bag or pick the seeds with your fingers.
Parsnip seeds can be stored for years in a cool, dry place.
Harvesting parsnip seeds from parsnip scraps
My favorite method to introduce diversity when growing parsnips for seeds is to simply use parsnip cuttings when I am cooking.
We love to cook with parsnips. And since we have a large family, we need to buy parsnips from the store now and then. When using store-bought parsnips, I use parsnip scraps to grow new parsnip plants.
As parsnips are biennials, they will flower in their second year. But I have always been successful with the cuttings I have planted.
Parsnips will not re-grow a new root when you grow them from cuttings. The cutting will however produce a wonderful plant that will bloom and set seeds.
I recommend cutting off about 3 cm (1 inch) of the top where the leaves are attached.
Now plant the cutting in a glass of water. After a couple of days, you will see new green roots forming, and there should also be some new growth from the top of the root.
After about 1 – 2 weeks we are ready to transplant the root cutting.
When you plant in soil, you make a hole about 3 cm (1 inch) deep and cover it with soil. Make sure to water it and keep it moist. You do not need to use a large or deep container, as the growth we are looking for will be above ground.
Now all we have to do is to wait for the plant to bloom and set seeds.